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Black mulberry (Morus nigra)

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Also listed as: Morus nigra
Related terms
Background
Evidencetable
Tradition
Dosing
Safety
Interactions
Attribution
Bibliography

Related Terms
  • American mulberry, anthocyanins, ash, black mulberry bark, chalcone dimethylallyltransferase, dihydromorin, hydroalcoholic polyphenolic chalcone dimethylallyltransferase, hydroxyresveratrol, Indian mulberry, isoquercitrin, isocordoin, isoquercitrin, lectin, malic acids, meshimakobu (Japanese), Moraceae (family), morin, Morinda tinctoria, Morniga G, Morniga M, morusin, Morus alba, Morus indica, Morus nigra, Morus nigra agglutinin, Morus nigra fruit, Morus nigra root bark, Morus rubra, mulberry, oligomannosyl residues, Phellinus linteus, prenylflavonoid, P-sitosterol, purple mulberry, quercitrin, red mulberry, sanggenol F, sanggenol H, sang-hwang (Korean), san-pai-p'I (Indian), tartaric acid, ursolic acid, white mulberry.
  • Note: This monograph focuses on black mulberry (Morus nigra), but due to the lack of information on this species, some related species information has been included.

Background
  • Mulberry is native to China and became naturalized and hybridized in Europe and America centuries ago. Indian mulberry (Morinda tinctoria) is reportedly used by the African aborigines medicinally, but there is no reliable evidence of its therapeutic value. In India, the root-bark of Morus alba, known locally as san-pai-p'i, is used as a diuretic (increasing urine flow) and expectorant (an agent that increases bronchial secretions and facilitates their expulsion through coughing, spitting or sneezing).
  • Herbalists have used mulberry fruit for oral infections. The bark of Morus nigra is also a reputed anthelmintic (medication) for tape worms.
  • At present, black mulberry (Morus nigra) is most commonly used for its antioxidant properties. It is also popularly used in the preparation of flavored syrup used in medicine and as a laxative in the treatment of constipation. Black mulberry has been indicated for a variety of other conditions, though all indications lack sufficient scientific data supporting their safety and efficacy at this time. Further research in these areas is warranted before firm conclusions can be drawn.

Evidence Table

These uses have been tested in humans or animals. Safety and effectiveness have not always been proven. Some of these conditions are potentially serious, and should be evaluated by a qualified healthcare provider. GRADE *
* Key to grades

A: Strong scientific evidence for this use
B: Good scientific evidence for this use
C: Unclear scientific evidence for this use
D: Fair scientific evidence for this use (it may not work)
F: Strong scientific evidence against this use (it likley does not work)


Tradition / Theory

The below uses are based on tradition, scientific theories, or limited research. They often have not been thoroughly tested in humans, and safety and effectiveness have not always been proven. Some of these conditions are potentially serious, and should be evaluated by a qualified healthcare provider. There may be other proposed uses that are not listed below.

  • Analgesic, anthelmintic (expels parasitic worms), antibacterial, antifungal, antioxidant, antitussive (suppresses cough), asthma, astringent, bronchitis, cancer, colds, cosmetic, diabetes, diaphoretic (promotes sweating), diuretic (increases urine flow), edema (swelling), expectorant (expels phlegm), eye infections, flavoring, food uses, hair tonic (premature graying), hypertension (high blood pressure), influenza, kidney function, laxative, liver disorders, lymphatic disorders (elephantiasis), mouth and throat inflammation, nosebleeds, ophthalmologic uses, pulmonary conditions, rheumatism, sedative, skin care (emollient), sore throat, spleen disorders, tetanus, tinnitus, tonic, toothache, urinary incontinence.

Dosing

Adults (18 years and older)

  • Based on the available scientific evidence, there is no proven safe or effective dose. Traditionally, 2-4 milliliters of mulberry syrup or 4.5-15 grams of powder or decoction has been used.

Children (younger than 18 years)

  • There is not enough scientific evidence to safely recommend the use of black mulberry in children.

Safety

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration does not strictly regulate herbs and supplements. There is no guarantee of strength, purity or safety of products, and effects may vary. You should always read product labels. If you have a medical condition, or are taking other drugs, herbs, or supplements, you should speak with a qualified healthcare provider before starting a new therapy. Consult a healthcare provider immediately if you experience side effects.

Allergies

  • Avoid use of black mulberry in individuals with a known allergy or sensitivity to white, red, purple or black mulberry (Morus spp.) or the Moraceae family. Individuals allergic to fig or any member of the Ficus family may also be cross-sensitive to mulberry.

Side Effects and Warnings

  • There is currently no scientific evidence on the medicinal uses of black mulberry, and information about safety and side effects is limited. There have been no known adverse effects reported, and black mulberry is assumed to be likely safe when used in food amounts in healthy patients.
  • In theory, patients with impaired liver function or diabetes should use black mulberry cautiously.

Pregnancy and Breastfeeding

  • The use of black mulberry during pregnancy or breastfeeding is not recommended due to a lack of available scientific evidence.

Interactions

Interactions with Drugs

  • Black mulberry may interfere with the way the body processes many drugs using the liver's "cytochrome P450" enzyme system. As a result, the levels of these drugs may be increased in the blood in the short-term (causing increased effects or potentially serious adverse reactions), and/or decreased in the blood in the long-term (which may reduce the intended effects). Examples of medications that may be affected by black mulberry in this manner include: carbamazepine, cyclosporin, irinotecan, midazolam, nifedipine, birth control pills, simvastatin, theophylline, tricyclic antidepressants, warfarin, or HIV drugs such as non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) or protease inhibitors (PIs).
  • Black mulberry may alter blood sugar levels. Caution is advised when using medications that may lower blood sugar. Patients taking drugs for diabetes by mouth or insulin should be monitored closely by a qualified healthcare professional. Medication adjustments may be necessary.
  • Black mulberry may increase the amount of drowsiness caused by some drugs. Examples include benzodiazepines such as lorazepam (Ativan®) or diazepam (Valium®), barbiturates such as phenobarbital, narcotics such as codeine, some antidepressants, and alcohol. Caution is advised while driving or operating machinery.

Interactions with Herbs and Dietary Supplements

  • Black mulberry may interfere with the way the body processes certain herbs and supplements using the liver's "cytochrome P450" enzyme system. As a result, the levels of these drugs may be increased in the blood in the short-term, causing increased effects or potentially serious adverse reactions, or decreased in the blood in the long-term, which may reduce the intended effects. Black mulberry may alter blood sugar levels. Caution is advised in patients with diabetes or in those taking herbs and supplements that may also alter blood sugar levels.
  • Black mulberry may increase the amount of drowsiness caused by some herbs or supplements, such as chamomile. Caution is advised while driving or operating machinery.

Attribution
  • This information is based on a systematic review of scientific literature edited and peer-reviewed by contributors to the Natural Standard Research Collaboration (www.naturalstandard.com).

Bibliography
  1. Caiaffa MF, Cataldo VM, Tursi A, et al. Fig and mulberry cross-allergy. Ann.Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2003;91(5):493-495.
  2. de Souza MM, Bittar M, Cechinel-Filho V, et al. Antinociceptive properties of morusin, a prenylflavonoid isolated from Morus nigra root bark. Z Naturforsch.[C.] 2000;55(3-4):256-260.
  3. Fu DX, Chen L, Hou AJ, et al. Constituents of Morus nigra. Chinese Traditional and Herbal Drugs 2005;36.
  4. Kim H, Yoon YJ, Shon JH, et al. Inhibitory effects of fruit juices on CYP3A activity. Drug Metab Dispos. 2006;34(4):521-523.
  5. Muntean D, Imre S, Avrigeanu V, et al. Physico-chemical study of the isolated flavonoids from leaves and bark of Morus alba L. and Morus nigra L. species. Farmacia 2002;50:97-103.
  6. Naderi GA, Asgary S, Sarraf-Zadegan N, et al. Antioxidant activity of three extracts of Morus nigra. Phytother.Res. 2004;18(5):365-369.
  7. Rabijns A, Barre A, Van Damme EJ, Peumanset al. Structural analysis of the jacalin-related lectin MornigaM from the black mulberry (Morus nigra) in complex with mannose. FEBS J 2005;272(14):3725-3732.
  8. Rouge P, Peumans WJ, Barre A, et al. A structural basis for the difference in specificity between the two jacalin-related lectins from mulberry (Morus nigra) bark. Biochem Biophys.Res Commun. 4-25-2003;304(1):91-97.
  9. Singh T, Wu JH, Peumans WJ, et al. Recognition profile of Morus nigra agglutinin (Morniga G) expressed by monomeric ligands, simple clusters and mammalian polyvalent glycotopes. Mol Immunol. 3-30-2006.
  10. Wu AM, Wu JH, Singh T, et al. A novel lectin (Morniga M) from mulberry (Morus nigra) bark recognizes oligomannosyl residues in N-glycans. J Biomed.Sci 2004;11(6):874-885.

Copyright © 2011 Natural Standard (www.naturalstandard.com)


The information in this monograph is intended for informational purposes only, and is meant to help users better understand health concerns. Information is based on review of scientific research data, historical practice patterns, and clinical experience. This information should not be interpreted as specific medical advice. Users should consult with a qualified healthcare provider for specific questions regarding therapies, diagnosis and/or health conditions, prior to making therapeutic decisions.

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